||Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in marine environments and play an important role as primary producers. Some cyanobacteria, the so-called cyanobionts (cyanobacterial symbionts), have a symbiotic relationship with unicellular organisms. Among these relationships, in particular, the nature (e.g., genetic diversity, host or cyanobiont specifcity, and cyanobiont seasonality) of the cyanobiont-dinofagellate host consortia remains poorly understood. In this study, 16S rDNA of cyanobionts in 138 single host cells isolated over four seasons from temperate waters were sequenced using the MiSeq platform. Genetic analysis of cyanobionts from the dinofagellate host Ornithocercus revealed that three genetic types of Synechococcales cyanobionts occurred in a wide range of water temperatures (11–24 °C), and their distribution seemed to be closely associated with variations in salinity. Furthermore, a certain degree of host (or cyanobiont) specifcity in cyanobionts (or the host) among Ornithocercus species as well as among other dinophysoid species (i.e. Amphisolenia, Citharistes, and Histioneis), was observed. In addition to the Synechococcales cyanobionts, this study identifed OTU sequences afliated with Vampirovibrionales and Chroococcidiopsidales in some Ornithocercus cells, suggesting that Ornithocercus species are an additional habitat for these bacterial groups.